Saturday, August 17, 2019

Areito is Taíno

Members of the Kasibahagua Taíno Cultural Society shared a contemporary areito
 at the 2019 Bear Mountain Pow Wow in New York. 
Did You Know: The term areito (also spelled areyto) is a Taíno word that describes a socio-ceremonial blend of dance, music, song, and poetry. The areito played a significant role in the social, political, and religious life of the Taíno People. In the 15th and early 16th century, Spanish chroniclers in the Caribbean noted that the arieto were presented in the main plaza of the iukaieke (also spelled yucayeque) or village. Sometimes areito were conducted in a designated area in front of the home of a kasike or chieftain. These plazas or ceremonial grounds called batei had their borders defined by standing stones, often decorated or carved with various images, or by earthen embankments. Dances during an areito could vary a great deal. Sometimes there were step-patterns moving along specific pathways. Walking patterns that went no more than a step or two in either direction were also used. According to a few of the descriptions given by Spanish chroniclers, some dances were comparable to what would be called line dances today. All the dances were lead by a tekina (a guide, teacher or dance master) of either sex who would use a call and response pattern of song and steps. Areito leaders determined the steps, words, rhythm, energy, tone, and pitch of a dance sequence. The dances could be based on ancient clearly choreographed steps or new choreography could be presented in this evolving art form. 

Sources 

Maestri, N. Areitos: Ancient Caribbean Taíno Dancing and Singing Ceremonies, ThoughtCo., https://www.thoughtco.com/areitos-ceremony-169589 

Atkinson L-G. 2006. The Earliest Inhabitants: The Dynamics of the Jamaican Taino. Kingston, Jamaica: University of West Indies Press. 

León T. 2016. Polyrhythmia in the Music of Cuba. Polyrhythmia in the Music of Cuba. Diagonal: An Ibero-American Music Review 1(2). 

Saunders NJ. 2005. The Peoples of the Caribbean. An Encyclopedia of Archaeology and Traditional Culture. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. Scolieri PA. 2013. On the Areito: Discovering Dance in the New World. Dancing the New World: Aztecs, Spaniards, and the Choreography of Conquest. University of Texas Press: Austin. p 24-43. 

Simmons ML. 1960. Pre-Conquest Narrative Songs in Spanish America. The Journal of American Folklore 73(288):103-111. 

Thompson D. 1983. Music Research in Puerto Rico. College Music Symposium 23(1):81-96. 

Thompson D. 1993. The "Cronistas de Indias" Revisited: Historical Reports, Archeological Evidence, and Literary and Artistic Traces of Indigenous Music and Dance in the Greater Antilles at the Time of the "Conquista". Latin American Music Review / Revista de Música Latinoamericana 14(2):181-201.  

Wilson SC. 2007. The Archaeology of the Caribbean. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Friday, July 12, 2019

Caribbean Jade



Did You Know:
Jade is a generic term often used to describe various greenish gemstones found around the Greater Caribbean region, from the islands to the Caribbean-coastal areas of the continent. Archeologists, gemologists and others note there is a distinction between what is termed “true jade” and other stones, sometimes termed “social jade.” True jade includes nephrite and jadeite, which is harder and denser. Jadeite has a range of colors, but nephrite is found in cream and green colors. A related 
term jadeitite refers to rocks that consist mostly of jadeite, which is used as a carving material.  Social jade varies among serpentine, quartz, agates, turquoise, and radiolarian limestone. In the Antilles, these stones were used by the Indigenous Peoples of the region to produce and or distribute adornments and tools (utilitarian and ceremonial) that had temporal and spiritual significance. While jadeite items are relatively commonly known, serpentine items seem to be the most widely distributed. The lack of documented jadeitite quarries on the islands indicates that it was a valued trade item in ancient times
from island to island and or from the continent to the islands. - (c) UCTP Taíno News 2019



Sources:

What is the Caribbean? An Archaeological Perspective, Reniel Rodriguez Ramos, Universidad de Puerto Rico, Utuado Campus, Caribbean Journal of Archaeology, 2010 


What is Jade?, Hobart King, Ph.D., Geology.com

Tuesday, April 02, 2019

Hagua (jagua, xagua)




Did You Know: The hagua (jagua, xagua), whose scientific name is Genipa Americana L., is both a tropical tree and a fruit that is found throughout the Caribbean, as well as Central and South America. The fruit of the hagua (pronounced "hah-gooah") have a crown-shaped structure at the tip and turns yellow when ripe. The fruit ranges in size from that of a kiwi to a melon and also has a strange feature: they can get dry, but do not rot. Scientists have affirmed that hagua are a natural source of iron, riboflavin and have anti-bacterial substances. In traditional and homeopathic medicine, hagua is a diuretic and recommend to treat scurvy, venereal ulcers, dropsy, and bronchitis. Local knowledge also affirms the unripe fruit is an astringent, anti-inflammatory and anti-anemic. The root of the hagua has purgative and laxative effects, while a decoction from the bark is used to treat scorbutic ulcers and venereal diseases, in addition to combating anemia and regurgitations of the liver and spleen. The unripe fruit of the hagua also yields a liquid, which is traditionally used as a dye for skin painting, tattoos, and insect repellent or for protection from the sun. The juice of the unripe hagua is colorless, but oxidizes on exposure to the air and gradually turns a black/blue color. This juice is commonly used to dye clothing, hammocks, utensils, and basket making materials or for painting the body during ceremonies and celebrations. - © 2019 UCTP Taino News

Thursday, January 03, 2019

El Grito de Koaiuko (Coayuco)

Contemporary representations of Taíno kasike Mabodamaka and Agueibaná "el Bravo" in Borikén (Puerto Rico)
Did You Know: January 3rd is the anniversary of “El Grito de Koaiuko (Coayuco)” also known as the Taíno Rebellion of 1511 in Puerto Rico (Borikén). Two of the main leaders or kasike (chief/s) associated in this uprising were Agüeibaná "el Bravo" and Mabodamaka. According to local history, the kasike (chieftain) Agüeibaná "el Bravo" convened a council with the main chiefs where they decided to launch a military offensive against the Spanish invaders. An associated attack against Villa Sotomayor was organized and most of the Spaniards who had settled there were killed. Other offensives were not as successful and both Agüeibaná "el Bravo" and Mabodamaka were killed by the Spaniards during other battles taking place in Aimako (Aymaco) and Yagüesa (Yagüeza/Yagüeca). - UCTP Taino News (c) 2019